Fifth Judicial District - Department of Correctional Services

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TITLE: Smart Day Programming

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND GOALS

This intermediate sanctions cognitive-behavioral program provides intensive treatment and intensive supervision to high-risk offenders. The program allows high-risk probation/parole offenders to reside at home but report to the center on a regular, often daily, basis. SMART Day Program allows treatment and supervision in a setting that is more structured and intensive than regular probation but less inhibiting and less expensive than incarceration. Offenders are assessed to determine their risk/needs and are then strategically placed in appropriate interventions based on their individual criminogenic risk and needs. Offenders are also assigned face-to-face contacts up to daily based on their risk.

Based on evidenced-based practices, the SMART Day program uses Motivational interviewing and Stages of Change to interview, assess and help offenders. We use the risk and needs principle to assess and determine frequency and dosage of services that target criminogenic needs. Program design and interventions are immersed in cognitive restructuring and cognitive behavioral principles. Reinforcers are an integral part of the program. As well, the program is designed to administer the rewards, interventions, sanctions and punishers with immediacy.

While in the SMART Day Program, the offender submits an itinerary that details his/her daily travels, destinations and purpose. This schedule encouraged offenders to structure their time more productively and to be accountable to their time The schedules also allow staff to monitor the offenders' whereabouts, reinforcing pro-social activities and pro-social associates.

SMART Day Program allows correctional staff to apply the proper amount of surveillance and the proper intensity of treatment to the high-risk offender in order to change criminal behavior while protecting the community.

PROGRAM MISSION

The mission of the Day Program Center is to reduce criminal recidivism of participants through an intensive cognitive-behavioral program whereby thinking and behavioral patterns that have resulted in criminal activity are measured and modified.

Program Goals:

  1. To provide intensive intervention services and structured monitoring to high-risk offenders
  2. To assist offenders in becoming productive, self-sufficient and contributing members of society.
  3. To provide intensive and quality treatment interventions that will promote compliance with supervision objectives and long-term behavior change.
  4. To provide structure in offenders' daily activities and provide close monitoring to make offenders accountable for their time to facilitate constructive use of leisure time and reduce time spent with anti-social associates
  5. To reduce criminal behavior
  6. To divert jail or incarceration bound offenders
  7. Alleviate jail and prison overcrowding
  8. To match offenders to supervision and interventions based on risk and needs
  9. To reduce recidivism

Program Targets:

  1. Change anti-social attitudes, orientation and values
  2. Reduce antisocial behaviors
  3. Reduce anti-social peer associates
  4. Increase pro-social support system
  5. Increase self control, self-management
  6. Improve problem solving
  7. Reduce alcohol and drug abuse
  8. Promote family monitoring and supervision
  9. Reduce anger and hostility
  10. Teach pro-social alternatives to lying, stealing and aggression
  11. Improve constructive use of leisure time
  12. Improve conflict resolution skills
  13. Improve positive attitude and performance at work or school
  14. Increase employment retention
  15. Improve/ increase focus on harm done to victim/ increase empathy
  16. Improve relapse prevention. Improve recognition of high-risk situations and increase incidents of responding to high-risk situations appropriately

PROCEDURE

  1. Admission Criteria
    1. Offenders who meet the following criteria shall be considered eligible for admission into SMART Day Program. All criteria must be met.
      1. LSI-R score of 24 or higher
      2. Iowa Risk Assessment 15+ (unless on Intensive Pre-Trial Release or over-ridden to Intensive Supervision)
      3. Must be assigned to Intensive Supervision
      4. Must have at least 6 months left on probation/ parole
      5. Must NOT have an active mental illness that is causing disruption to daily functioning or that is not being successfully treated with medication.
      6. Must have a Jesness classification
      7. Must be willing to sign Day Programming Agreement
      8. Must have access to transportation
      9. Must have an acceptable or verifiable address.
      10. Must not be a sex offender
      11. Must not have an INS hold
      12. Must be able to speak English
  2. Referral Process:
    1. The assigned supervising officer shall review each new case to determine if the offender is eligible for Day Programming and will refer all eligible ISP offenders who meet the admission criteria onto the Day Program Center for intake.
    2. If an offender is eligible for Day Programming, the supervising officer will assure that an updated LSI-R, Jesness, Action Plan and a Case Plan are completed prior to the referral. (An updated LSI-R is defined as an LSI-R completed with-in the past month, reviewed for accuracy and reflects any and all significant changes that would alter the LSI-R score.)
    3. The supervising officer will enter the Day Program recommendation in ICON.
    4. The supervising officer will complete a Behavioral Assessment Rating on each offender referred to Day Programming.
    5. The supervising officer will forward the offender's action plan and Behavioral Assessment Rating onto the Day Program.
    6. The supervising officer will complete the referral process by scheduling the referred offender a Day Program assessment/ intake appointment.
  3. Assessment/Intake Process
    1. The needs of each offender are unique. Therefore, each offender will have a thorough interview and assessment well as an individualized Case Plan.
    2. Offenders will be placed in programs and services based on their individual criminogenic needs as well as taking their individual characteristics, abilities and learning style into consideration.
    3. All offenders will have an LSI-R and Iowa Risk Assessment, a Jesness classification and a Case Plan.
    4. Offenders' needs will be assessed utilizing the LSI-R.
    5. The Criminal Sentiments Scale will also be administered during intake in order to establish a baseline admission score.
    6. Other assessment tools may be used on a case by case basis.
    7. All participating offenders will review and sign the Day Programming Agreement. (see attachment #1)
    8. During the assessment/intake process, participates will go through a high risk screening to determine frequency and dosage of services. The high risk indicators that will be used are as follows but are not limited to:
      1. LSI score of 41 or higher
      2. Jesness classifications of AA or AP
      3. Jesness t-score of 65 or higher in the Social Maladjustment and A-Social Index
      4. Hare Psychopathy Pre-Screen when necessary.
    9. When it is determined based on interview and screening that an offender is high risk then his/ her services will be tailored to meet the high risks needs. In this case, the offender will be assigned to the high risk surveillance unit where surveillance and monitoring services will be enhanced.
  4. Staff Code of Ethics
    1. All staff will follow the following code of ethics:
      1. Corrective intervention of offenders will be delivered in the least restrictive manner necessary to achieve the desired behavior.
      2. All staff are considered Change Agents. Staff will model and enforce pro-social behavior.
      3. All staff will remain professional at all times in all interactions with offenders, other staff and the public.
      4. All staff will maintain professional relationship boundaries at all times
      5. Staff will follow all other Employee Rules of Conduct, Department Policies and the Employee Creed.
    2. Philosophy on Learning and Skill Building:
      1. Each offender is unique. Individual learning style, personality, ability and characteristics will be taken into consideration before placing an offender into groups
      2. Day programming staff and facilitators will tailor their approach and style to be most effective with individual differences.
      3. Offender change requires proper instruction, modeling, effective reinforcement and practice.
      4. Staff will ask offenders to practice the new skills through continual role-plays in increasingly difficult situations.
      5. Offenders learn from modeling, thus, staff will model pro-social behavior.
  5. Program Philosophy and Procedures for Rewards/Punishment:
    1. Punishment
      1. The only purpose of punishment is to deter the undesirable behavior. Effective correction must produce a fundamental change in the way the offender sees the world, especially his/her perception of authority, rules, and accountability. Therefore, punishment will be progressive in nature using graduated sanctions in order to administer the least amount of correction necessary to achieve the desired result.
      2. Whenever possible, sanctions shall be swift (applied immediately after the deviant behavior) and certain (impossible for the offender to escape).
      3. Since sanctions alone fail to affect desired outcomes, cognitive corrective interventions (i.e. thinking reports, cognitive reflective communication) will be used in combination with the punishment whenever possible.
      4. We recognize that when too harsh of correction is served the following unwanted results may occur:
        1. Potential for change may diminish
        2. Shut down the offender's learning process
        3. Create non-constructive unwanted emotional reactions
        4. Numbs the offender to the impact of consequences thus making the punishment ineffective
        5. Creates avoidance/aggression towards the staff delivering the punishment.
        6. Gives staff member little room to advance to the next level of correction if the undesirable behavior persists.
      5. Day Program staff will watch for these unwanted results and seek alternative corrections to extinguish the undesired behavior.
      6. The following are possible punishers:
        1. Increased restrictions
        2. Increased surveillance
        3. Increased contacts
        4. Curfew
        5. Electronic Monitoring
        6. Staffings
        7. Community Service
        8. Loss of points
        9. Jail Time
    2. Rewards
      1. Rewards are just as, if not more, important as punishment. Thus we will reinforce positive pro-social behavior by rewarding offenders so they may learn new pro-social behaviors.
      2. We will do our best not to inadvertently reward undesirable behavior.
      3. Whenever possible, staff will reward offenders when some degree of the desired behavior is displayed in order to reinforce the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
      4. The following are just a few of the possible rewards:
        1. Verbal praise
        2. Group recognition
        3. Individual recognition
        4. Certificates
        5. Personal Letters
        6. Fewer restrictions
        7. Food/ Treats
        8. Less UAs
        9. Longer curfew
        10. Fewer contacts
        11. Less surveillance
        12. Good report to PO
        13. Day or week-end curfew extension
        14. Immune from homework for a day
        15. Time on the computer
        16. Positive Recommendations (i.e. travel permit etc)
        17. Phase Up (if phases or levels)
        18. Door prizes
        19. Points (which later can be used to gain privileges/ Phase-up
        20. Tangible rewards (such as gift certificates, coupons and donated prizes)
        21. Free skip day pass
  6. Monitoring Offender Progress/ Outcome Measures and Completion Criteria:
    1. Point System
      1. One tool the Day Program will use to modify offender behavior will be the Points. Staff will reinforce offender behavior through the earning or losing of points.
      2. Points will be given or taken immediately upon the observation of the desired or undesired behavior. If the behavior is not directly observed it must be verifiable.
      3. Social reinforcement i.e. praise will be paired with the delivery of each point given. The praise shall be informative, specifically describing the behavior that resulted in the earning of the point.
      4. Points will be administered fairly based on the following standards:
        1. Earn Points:
          1. Community Service - 1/hr
          2. Attendance - 1/group
          3. Homework - 1/assigment
          4. Clean UA's - 5/UA
          5. Completion of Group/Class/Treatment - 25/program
          6. Each Job Application - 1/application
          7. Getting a Job Interview - 5/interview
          8. Obtaining a Job - 10/upon hire verification
          9. Maintaining Job - 5/each week maintained
          10. Getting a Raise at work - 5/ raise
          11. Promotion at work - 10/promotion
          12. Good BAR (boss, family, PO etc) - 5/report
          13. Demonstration of pro-social behavior - 5/observable behavior
          14. Obtaining GED - 15/ upon completion
          15. Each verifiable pro-social activity - 5/activity
          16. Family/Significant Other involvement in Program - 10/ each involvement
          17. Payment on fines, supervision fee etc. - 1/$5 payment
        2. Lose Points:
          1. Dirty UA - 20 points
          2. Tardy - 5
          3. Missing class or reporting - 10
          4. Termination from class/ treatment etc. - 50
          5. Termination or Quitting Job - 25
          6. Not doing homework/ assignment - 5
          7. Poor BAR (boss, family, PO etc) - 20
          8. Observed deviant/ anti-social behavior - 5-20 (based on behavior)
    2. Level System:
      1. Another tool Day Program will use to modify offender behavior is a Level System based on Phases.
        Offenders will gain privileges as they advance through the phases.
        1. Phase I Contact Standards
          1. UAs - random
          2. Daily reporting - 5/wk
          3. PO contacts - as needed
          4. Phone Contact - 2/wk (more for high risk cases)
          5. Home visits - as needed/ as required
          6. Curfew checks - 2/ wk (more for high risk cases)
          7. Schedule verification - 2/wk (more for high risk cases)
          8. Curfew - 6pm
        2. Phase I Admission Criteria (1 or more of the below criteria must be met)
          1. Unemployed
          2. LSI-R 40 or higher
          3. Deemed as a necessary intervention to modify anti-social behavior
        3. Phase I Completion Criteria to move to Phase II (all must be met)
          1. Must be employed
          2. Must score an average of a 3 on Behavioral Assessment Ratings
          3. Must apply for a Phase Up request and will be reviewed by staffing team based on behavior and progress.
        4. Phase II Contact Standards
          1. UA's - random
          2. Daily reporting - 2/wk
          3. PO contacts - as needed
          4. Phone Contact - 2/wk (more for high risk cases)
          5. Home visits - as needed/ as required
          6. Curfew checks - 1/wk (more for high risk cases)
          7. Schedule verification - 2/wk (more for high risk cases)
          8. Curfew - 8pm/10pm as determined by PO (may be earlier based on risk)
        5. Phase II Admission Criteria
          1. All new Intensive Level admissions who are employed and who have an LSI-R score of less than 40 will start in Phase II and earn phase ups based on measurable desirable behavior.
        6. Phase II Completion Criteria to move to Phase III (all must be met)
          1. Must be employed
          2. Must score an average of a 3 on Behavioral Assessment Ratings
          3. Must accumulate 100 points
          4. Must apply for a Phase Up request and will be reviewed by staffing team based on behavior and progress
        7. Phase III Contact Standards
          1. UAs - random
          2. Daily Reporting - 1/wk
          3. PO contacts - as needed
          4. Phone Contact - 1/wk (more for high risk cases)
          5. Home visits - as needed/ as required
          6. Curfew checks - 2/mo (more for high risk cases)
          7. Schedule verification - 1/wk (more for high risk cases)
          8. Curfew - 10pm (may be earlier based on risk)
        8. Phase III Completion Criteria to move to Phase IV (all must be met)
          1. Must be employed
          2. Must score an average of a 3.5 on Behavioral Assessment Ratings
          3. Must accumulate 100 points
          4. Must apply for a Phase Up request and will be reviewed by staffing team based on behavior and progress
        9. Phase IV Contact Standards (Transition to Regular Supervision Phase)
          1. UAs - random
          2. Daily reporting - not required
          3. PO Contacts - 1-2/mo
          4. Phone Contact - not required
          5. Home visits - as needed
          6. Curfew checks - as needed
          7. Schedule verification - not required
          8. Curfew - none or as needed
  7. On-Going Assessments
    1. Behavioral Assessment Ratings will be done on all Day Program participants in order to measure any changes in behaviors.
    2. A Facilitator Behavioral Assessment Rating will be done at least once per month by the facilitator on each SMART Day Program participant in group. The facilitator will forward completed Behavioral Assessment Ratings to the Day Program Manager.
    3. Each Supervising Probation/Parole Officer will complete a Behavioral Assessment Rating on each of his/her offenders who are in SMART Day Program. These Behavioral Assessment Ratings will be completed minimally at time of referral, at time of phase-up requests and prior to completion.
    4. Every attempt will be made to also encourage family/significant other and employer to complete a Behavioral Assessment Rating on each Intensive Day Program Participant, especially prior to completion of the SMART Day Program.
    5. A Day Program Staff member will also complete a Comprehensive Behavioral Assessment Rating on each SMART Day Program participant in Day Programming at least every 2 months.
    6. A staffing team (which will consist of at least a Day Program staff and the assigned PO) will meet weekly to discuss participant's behavior, progress and phase up requests.
  8. Intermediate Outcome Measures
    1. Abstaining from alcohol and drugs
      - 75% of participants will be substance free during the program
    2. Reduction in criminal attitude thinking patterns
      - 75% of participants will have a reduction in their Criminal Sentiments Scale
    3. Reduce criminal behavior
      - 75% of participants will remain arrest free during the program
    4. Increase in cognitive skill level
      - 75% of participants will successfully complete a cognitive program
    5. Obtain employment
      - 90% of participants will be employed
    6. Maintain employment
      - 75% of participants will have 5 months of steady employment
    7. Job Performance
      - 75% of participants will receive a 3 or higher on their employer's behavior assessment rating
    8. Reduce probation/ parole violations
      - 75% of participants will remain violation free will in the program
    9. Develop pro-social associations
      - 75% of participants will develop at least one pro-social peer through pro-social activities.
  9. Discharge
    1. Completion Criteria
      1. Must have successfully completed all recommended groups
      2. Must complete all 4 Phases of Day Programming
      3. Must be employed
      4. At least 3 months of clean UA/BA
      5. 3 months of positive Surveillance checks
      6. Good report from Employer
      7. Good report from family/significant other
      8. Good report from PO
      9. Must score an average of 3.5 or higher on attitude and behavioral assessment by employer, family, PO and/or Day Program staff
      10. Reduction in Criminal Sentiments Scale, LSI-R and Iowa Risk Assessment
  10. Program Satisfaction Survey
    1. All offenders leaving the program, regardless of discharge type or status, will be asked to complete a Program Satisfaction Survey.
    2. Satisfaction Surveys will be used to survey offenders' satisfaction with services. They will be reviewed, considered and discussed in order to improve program operations and effectiveness.
  11. SMART Day Program Aftercare
    1. The following will be possible aftercare services offenders will receive. Offenders also may require booster sessions based on need. When this is determined based on re-occurrences of undesirable behavior(s) offenders may be referred back to Cognitive Aftercare, Cognitive Continuing Care or any other identified groups addressing the targeted area of need.
      1. Cognitive Aftercare
      2. Cognitive Continuing Care
      3. Substance Abuse Aftercare
      4. Relapse Prevention
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